Bruised But Not Beaten | Herridos pero no vencidos

Justice for Janitors pamphlet announcing a return march to Century City.

On June 15, 1990, the LAPD armed with nightsticks attacked group of peaceful demonstrators outside Century City that included women and children. Not intimidated by police brutality, the demonstrators continued to protest until fair working conditions were given.

“L.A. unions and people who need them meet face to face”

LA Country Federation of Labor details the Labor Immigrant Assistance Program and the California Immigrant Workers Association.

Following the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986, Los Angeles unions became more involved in recruiting immigrant workers. An article in the L.A. County Federation of Labor Newsletter profiles the Labor Immigrant Assistance Project (LIAP) and the California Immigrant Workers Association (CIWA), both efforts by the labor movement to reach out to new immigrants. From The Federation News, January/February 1989, pp. 4-5.

Unions review impact of immigration reform

AFL-CIO pamphlet on the Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) passed in 1986.

The AFL-CIO published this information for unions and workers in the wake of the Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) of 1986. The law created a process for many undocumented residents to regularize their status, and the pamphlet highlights organized labor’s role in helping “undocumented workers attain legal status and prevent discrimination by employers.” In Los Angeles, the Labor Immigrant Assistance Project (LIAP) supported workers’ amnesty applications, and the California Immigrant Workers Association (CIWA) served as a general union for immigrant workers without collective bargaining in their workplaces. IRCA also created a new federal prohibition on hiring undocumented workers, something immigrant rights advocates and organized labor in Los Angeles had strongly opposed, but the national AFL-CIO supported. The AFL-CIO abandoned this policy in 2000. View the Document.

CODIL General Assembly, June 1978

CODIL meeting announcement June 1978
After successfully halting the deportation of over 100 shoeworkers at the Sbicca shoe factory in El Monte, activists called for meeting to recruit more factory committees. Courtesy of the Department of Special Collections, Stanford University Libraries

After years of fighting deportation sweeps in Los Angeles, activists associated with the Centro de Acción Social Autónimo (CASA) formed special committee to address workplace raids by the INS and to advocate for the rights of undocumented workers generally. The Comité Obrero en Defensa de los Indocumentados en Lucha (CODIL, or in English the Workers Committee in Defense of the Undocumented in the Struggle) joined with the National Lawyers Guild (NLG) and a group of unions in an ad hoc Labor Immigration Action Center to coordinate immigrant organizing and legal defense.

On May 17, 1978 an election among over 700 workers at the Sbicca shoe factory in El Monte resulted in a narrow loss for the Retail Clerk’s union. The union filed objections contesting the result, but the next day immigration agents arrived at the plant and ordered the immediate deportation of 120 workers. CODIL charged the raid “was carried out in a selective manner looking principally for those who supported the union” and then pressuring workers to sign voluntary deportation orders even after they requested a lawyer. As the workers were aboard buses en route to the border, the union appealed for help from the Labor Immigration Action Center. Lawyers with the NLG filed suit in federal court and secured a temporary restraining order halting the deportation until the workers could have individual hearings. The legal victory energized immigrant worker advocates and encouraged progressive unionists. Along with other challenges to factory raids, the number of worker deportation dropped significantly for a time.

Following the victory at Sbicca, CODIL activists recruited participants in workplace committees through regular meetings held at the Peoples College near MacArthur Park. The committees aimed to organize nonunion workers and also to challenge existing unions to defend immigrant workers. CODIL identified their membership as those who “have been deported repeatedly because we have claimed our rights in front of the exploiting bosses.” CODIL trained workers to assert their constitutional rights during raids, and encouraged unions to write into their contracts protections against workplace raids and the right of workers to return to work after deportation.

CODIL Asemblea General, from the papers of CASA-HGT, Box 32, Folder 4. Courtesy of the Department of Special Collections, Stanford University Libraries.

RUHLOW, JERRY. “Unionist Promises to Assist Illegal Aliens: Organizer Would Fight Deportation If Workers Sign Contract.” Los Angeles Times (1923-1995); Los Angeles, Calif. March 11, 1979, sec. PART II. https://search.proquest.com/hnplatimes/docview/158744564/abstract/CFFCB59967914AB6PQ/10.
Goodman, Adam. The Deportation Machine: America’s Long History of Expelling Immigrants. Politics and Society in Modern America. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2020. https://muse.jhu.edu/book/73241/.